Collecting and analyzing specific indicators in order to assist decision-making processes, guarantee responsibilities and provide basis for learning



Systematic and objective evaluation of the design, implementation, costs and/or results of a project, program or policy, whether still in place or finalized.

There are various kinds of evaluation, including;

1. Design evaluation
2. Impact evaluation
3. Cost-benefit evaluation
4. Process evaluation


Desk review of a program or group of programs in order to identify the main stakeholders, institutional arrangements, existing information, etc.

1) M&E: What for?

Monitoring and Evaluation, essential components of results-based management, provide information for the design, implementation and evaluation of the results of projects, programs and policies from governments, civil society and private institutions. When used correctly, M&E can assist decision-makers in defining what works or not, and, in both cases, why.

M&E within the public sector may also:

  • Support results-based decision-making, especially in this national context of budget planning;
  • Advise ministries and agencies in the management of their activities on sectional, programmatic and project levels;
  • Strengthen transparency and accountability.

2) Can Monitoring and Evaluation be relevant for the process of budget resource allocation?

Yes. Since governments have budgetary constraints, it is in public managers’ best interest that decisions on the allocation of more or less resources be made regarding programs’ performances. M&E may assist managers in identifying which programs work and why.

3) How can M&E be used to improve government transparency?

The evidence generated by M&E systems and programs are essential so that a government may get information across to the population about its administration and how public resources are being invested. Such information is also important in order to enable debate on the efficiency of public programs and policies.

4) What are the main challenges associated with the implementation of M&E?

Challenges depend on a country’s context or the extent of its development. Broadly speaking, four main challenges and requisites can be identified, which must be met in order for the M&E of programs or policies to be successful:

  • High-level public management buy-in;
  • Incentives to promote the use and generation of information on results;
  • Capacity building in order to maintain M&E efforts;
  • Access to trustworthy data and indicators.